The Operation Of The Smart System Construction Essay Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia and turns into a notable global city with co...
Sunday, March 22, 2020
Taoism The original form of Taoism is sometimes called philosophical Taoism or classical Taoism. Taoism never even had a name until Buddhism came to China. It was nameless. Lao Tzu even states that ?Tao? is only used because it is the closest word in meaning. Nothing can be said about the Tao without taking away from the meaning. When Taoism finally was acknowledged, it changed from its strict philosophical path to a religious one, with its own priests and holy men. For many centuries Taoism was just a way of life followed by peasant, farmer and gentleman philosopher and artist. They reflected and mediated. They learned from the highest teacher, nature. They meditated using the energy moving through their bodies and mapped out the roads and paths it traveled upon. Each man and woman was his or her own priest. The connection with the divine or Tao was the sacred trust of each individual. Taoism was said to have been created by the father of Taoism, Lao Tzu, which means ?Old Sage.? Lao Tzu was born in 1321 B.C. He was the keeper of the archives at the imperial courts. The legend has it that he went to the west border at age 80, sad because men were unwilling to follow the path of natural goodness. At the western border, a guard named Yin Xi asked Lao Tzu to record his teachings to him. Lao Tzu then wrote the Tao Te Ching. In Lao Tzu's view things were said to create wei or unnatural action by shaping desires or yu. The process of learning the names called ming used in the doctrines helped people to decide which what good and evil, beautiful and ugly, high and low, and "being" (yu) and "non- being" (wu). He believed that those who seek for and follow the Tao are strong of body, clear of mind, and sharp of sight and hearing. Followers of the Tao do not load their mind with anxieties of the world, and are flexible to change. This meant that wanting and desire was unneed ed because it was part of the Way. To abandon knowledge was to abandon names, distinctions, tastes and desires. Thus spontaneous behavior (wu-wei) resulted. Wu-Wei, which is a major theme in Taoism, is to do things in such a way that it does not seem like there is any effort involved. To do this meant to exist without conscious thought just like nature exists. It is letting go of the worldly thought and action so that the Tao might enter. Later in 399 B.C followed Chuang Tzu, who was labeled as the next great voice after Lao Tzu. Chuang Tzu developed even further what Lao Tzu had written about. He adapted what Lao Tzu taught about mystical learning and perspectives. Chuang Tzu's writing was more developed and clearly stated then Lao Tzu. He also emphasized the place humans have in nature. He believed that people should be at peace while moving with the world. He thought that different emotions lead to certain actions like compassion leads to courage or humility leads to leadership. Taoist ideas and images inspired the Chinese to love nature and to occasional retreat to it from the cares of the world to rest and heal. It also inspired an intense affirmation of physical life from health, well-being, and vitality, to even immortality. Taoism took a turn toward the occult. Some Taoists searched for "isles of the immortals," or for herbs or chemical compounds that could ensure immortality and magic but Taoists were more interested in health and vitality the search for immortality. Bibliography: Feibleman, James K. Drugs: Interactions. New York, New American Library, 1976
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Article Summaries Essay examples Article Summaries Essay examples Research Summary Paper PP7050: Physiological Psychology Argosy University, Orange County 23 October 2013 Article Summary: Ã¢â¬Å"Neuroimaging in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Current and Future Predictors of Functional OutcomeÃ¢â¬ (Suskauer & Huisman, 2009) A review by Suskaur and Huisman (2009) discusses new brain imaging techniques (i.e., diffusion weighted (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS)) and presents current research on their abilities to identify functional outcomes following TBI in the pediatric population due to their sensitivity in detecting microstructural brain injuries such as diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This review also discusses traditional anatomical imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as their insensitivity in detecting microstructural brain injuries. The authors suggest that the ability to more accurately identify the degree of brain injury early on may assist in determining patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ sequelae of injury, individualizing treatment, implementing early intervention to limit further brain injury, and increasing efficiency of rehab for patients. Current research studies related to this review are referenced. For example, according to Lee and Newberg (2005), brain imaging following TBI is often essential to identifying patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ sequelae of injury and prompting necessary interventions (i.e., surgery). This supports the clinical relevance of this review. Furthermore, according to Bauer and Fritz (2004), many age-related differences between the brain of a child and that of an adult exist that impact injury and rehabilitation. Therefore, the authors of this review solely focus on the pediatric population for the sake of continuity of findings. The method employed in this review was a review of current literature. Specifically, details of brain imaging methods are explicated. For example, according to the authors, CT is quick, easy, and accessible and provides information on the acute setting of TBI. However it has limited ability to identify the extent of DAI, only presents more obvious injuries, and is limited by its use of ionizing radiation. MRI is more accurate in detecting DAI. MRI studies have revealed associations between anatomical locations of lesions and post-TBI global functioning. For example, studies have demonstrated that deeper, more centrally located brain lesions are associated with worse outcomes (Grados et al., 2001). Anatomical MRI studies have also demonstrated relationships between post-traumatic ADHD, personality change, anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. However, there is no significant consensus in this literature. DWI is a new, noninvasive functional MRI technique that shows differentiation between the diffusion of protons in the brain and, therefore, differentiation between cytotoxic and vasogenic edemas, which are associated with DAI. Studies reveal that vasogenic may be reversible, while cytotoxic usually is not. Overall, DWI provides a greater degree of abnormality and better predicts outcomes compared to other techniques. DTI takes it a step further and measures the direction and proportion of diffusion. DTI results have been found to demonstrate relationships with injury severity and functional outcome. Additionally, DTI shows promise for future research investigating underlying mechanisms of recovery and pediatric brain development. SWI measures extracellular and extravascular blood products in the brain. It is very sensitive in detecting quantity and volume of lesions, which are associated with global (i.e., coma) and neurocognitive outcomes (i.e., IQ). H-MRS assesses for injury by analyzing the presence of neurometabolites. Disturbance in these has been found to be predictive of specific outcomes (i.e., good/bad, cognitive, and behavioral). In sum, future research